Farmer Incomes and Root Cause Solutions to Ending Child Labor in the Cocoa Industry
2014 ILRF report on the continuing obstacles to eliminating child labor in cocoa.
“When reports began to emerge in the mid-1990s about poor labor conditions in the cocoa industry, including labor trafficking and the worst forms of child labor, no major chocolate maker was willing to accept responsibility. After years of negotiations, campaigns, and public outcry, the chocolate industry has begun to recognize the need for changes in supply chain accountability. Despite myriad projects aimed at improving education, increasing productivity, and implementing cocoa certification, the collective impact has been limited and the industry has been unable to solve the root cause of the problem: the very low prices paid to farmers.”
The International Center for Research on Women’s report, “More Power to Her: How Empowering Girls Can Help End Child Marriage”, shows how and why investing in girls is critical to the global movement to end child marriage. The practice, which cuts across global cultures and religions, turns more than 14 million girls worldwide into child brides every year, violating their basic human rights – and hindering larger international development efforts.
Th e United Nations Offi ce of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (UN-OHRLLS) is presenting the State of the Least Developed Countries 2014 as part of its mandated analytical activities on the eight priority areas of the Istanbul Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries for the Decade 2011-2020. Th e second of its type, the report is intended to substantively backstop follow-up in each area.
The current report builds on the first edition in 2013, which considered the issues of productive capacity building in the least developed countries (LDCs) and the post-2015 development agenda. That report proposed a conceptual and operational framework for productive capacity building in the context of the post-2015 agenda, particularly relating to LDC issues and the sustainable development goals (SDGs). Th is year’s report is dedicated to the elimination of extreme poverty in the LDCs, which is at the centre of discussions about the SDGs and an area where most LDCs lag behind.
Flawed Fabrics – a new report by the Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations (SOMO) and the India Committee of the Netherlands (ICN) – shows that workers are still facing appalling labour conditions that amount to forced labour in the export-oriented Southern Indian textile industry. The women and girls who work in the spinning mills of Tamil Nadu, some as young as 15, are mostly recruited from marginalized Dalit communities in impoverished rural areas. They are forced to work long hours for low wages. They live in very basic company-run hostels and are hardly ever allowed to leave the company compound. The researched spinning mills have Western companies and Bangladesh garment factories among their customers, including C&A, Mothercare, HanesBrands, Sainsbury’s and Primark.
This 2014 Unicef progress report on under-five mortality and maternal health finds a good bit of progress has been made, though at the current rate of improvement, the world will meet MDGs 4 and 5 by 2026 – eleven years late. Some of the particular risk factors for newborns and infants include being born to a mother who is a child herself, being born immediately after another sibling, being born without the assistance of a skilled birth attendant. Worldwide, only 69% of women give birth with the help of a skilled birth attendant. And that’s an improvement – in 1990, the figure was 57%. Interesting read.
United Nations Population Fund report on the health effects and human rights implications of motherhood in adolescence. Lack of educational opportunity and poverty are the principal drivers for child marriage and underage pregnancy. Educational programs focusing on parents and children can help families postpone marriage.
Child labor is common on tobacco farms in the United States, where children are exposed to nicotine, toxic pesticides, and other dangers. Child tobacco workers often get sick with vomiting, nausea, headaches, and dizziness while working, all symptoms consistent with acute nicotine poisoning. Many work 50 to 60 hours a week without overtime pay, often in extreme heat. They may be exposed to pesticides that are known neurotoxins. Many also use dangerous tools and machinery, lift heavy loads, and climb to perilous heights to hang tobacco for drying. The largest tobacco companies in the world purchase tobacco grown in the US to make popular cigarette brands like Marlboro, Newport, Camel, Pall Mall and others. These companies can’t legally sell cigarettes to children, but they are profiting from child labor. US law also fails these children, by allowing them to work at much younger ages, for longer hours, and under more hazardous conditions than children working in all other sectors. Children as young as 12 can work legally on tobacco farms and at even younger ages on small farms.
In this recent talk before the World Affairs Council, William Easterly punctures the myths underlying so much of current development work: that wise Western experts holding their noses and encouraging autocratic governments to implement technological solutions to poverty can bring about development, that responding to material needs takes precedence over political and economic rights of the individual, that autocratic governments are essentially benevolent and will do the right thing for their people given enough technical and financial support. Not so, says Easterly, and in fact countries that have developed successfully have done so as a result of guaranteeing individual rights. “A free society with economic and political rights is a decentralized problem-solving society.” Political freedom raises countries out of poverty far more effectively than patchwork technocratic solutions applied by development experts. “Poverty is not caused by a shortage of experts, but by a shortage of rights.” Well worth your time.
I’ve raised two children, both adults now living in New York City where they’re currently pursuing their dreams. As they grew up, attending the same public school a few years apart, there was never a question in our family of whether they’d attend college. Our regional high school sends almost 90% of the annual graduating [...]
In the United States, our findings indicate, the majority does not rule — at least not in the causal sense of actually determining policy outcomes. When a majority of citizens disagrees with economic elites and/or with organized interests, they generally lose. Moreover, because of the strong status quo bias built into the U.S. political system, [...]
In this policy report, the Annie E. Casey Foundation explores the intersection of kids, race and opportunity. The report features the new Race for Results index, which compares how children are progressing on key milestones across racial and ethnic groups at the national and state level. The index is based on 12 indicators that measure a child’s success in each stage of life, from birth to adulthood, in the areas of early childhood; education and early work; family supports; and neighborhood context. The report also makes four policy recommendations to help ensure that all children and their families achieve their full potential.
A paper by Martin Gilens of Princeton University and Benjamin Page of Northwestern University, comparing each of four theoretical traditions in the study of American politics – which can be characterized as theories of Majoritarian Electoral Democracy, Economic Elite Domination, and two types of interest group pluralism, Majoritarian Pluralism and Biased Pluralism – and analysing which sets of actors have how much influence over public policy: average citizens; economic elites; and organized interest groups, mass-based or business-oriented.
Multivariate analysis indicates that economic elites and organized groups representing business interests have substantial independent impacts on U.S. government
policy, while average citizens and mass-based interest groups have little or no independent influence.
In other words, the unrestrained flow of money has distorted our political process to the point where we can no longer consider ourselves a functioning democracy.
This week at Media Voices, we’ve been thinking about what happens once African children have succeeded in gaining an education, something which increasing numbers of them have managed to do. According to the World Bank, the number of African children graduating from secondary school has increased fivefold since 1970, from 7% to 38%. I found [...]
Africa Development Forum report for the World Bank on employment prospects for youth in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as how best to maximize the energy and promise of the youth bulge.
If this is hard to read as is, go to the following link to download a pdf file: http://issuu.com/stevebutton/docs/yough_employment_in_sub-saharan_afr
The new World Bank Group report “Inclusion Matters: The Foundation for Shared Prosperity” is one of the most comprehensive reviews of social inclusion available.
The report uses evidence to bring home the message that inclusion can be advanced in myriad ways, that many countries have moved forward, and that change is within our reach.
The Syrian refugee crisis represents one of the greatest humanitarian challenges the international community has faced over the recent years, prompting record-high levels of international aid. In view of the complexity of the political and social environment in which these challenges arise and the historical scale of the population affected, innovative and creative programmatic responses are essential to address the short and middle-term needs of refugees and reducing instability in the Middle East region. Because of the economic desperation, an NGO has estimated that 16% of Syrian refugee children in Jordan are working – a fourfold increase.
Oxfam Emergency Market Mapping Analysis toolkit by Mike Albu. In recent years, international humanitarian agencies have been adapting their responses to emergencies. Many have begun using cash-based initiatives, alongside or in place of conventional relief distributions of food and non-food items. Local procurement is also being encouraged, and opportunities for other innovative responses explored. These changes in practice draw attention to the need for better analysis of markets. There is a growing realization that the best opportunities for assisting women and men may be missed unless emergency responses are designed with a good understanding of critical market systems. Moreover, lack of this market analysis in humanitarian programmes may be damaging the livelihoods, jobs, and businesses upon which people’s long-term security depends.
Lebanon is now home to nearly a million refugees from the conflict in Syria and the majority of them are living in makeshift shelters with little access to basic facilities. Concern Worldwide’s Crystal Wells, who has just returned from ten weeks in the northern district of Akkar, speaks to Al Jazeera America’s Antonio Mora.
It is hard to overstate the misery of their situation, an open-ended exile in deliberately impermanent structures in a tiny country that finds itself completely overwhelmed. If you’re casting about for a gift, consider a donation to Concern or to Unicef to help ameliorate the situation of the Syrian refugees.
Concern Worldwide, an Irish NGO, has this video explaining how the urban cash transfer works. Michael, father of five, has started a small business as a butcher with the help of the cash transfers that come in to a SIM card on his cellphone. The poor need money – the cash transfer assumes that they will know where best to put the available resources. It is far more empowering than dumping surplus food in the slums of the world, and has the additional benefit of stimulating the local economy.
This week at Media Voices, we have two videos from the Global March Against Child Labour (known in India as Bachpan Bachao Andolan), Not Made by Children and #dontlookaway. Not Made by Children is a toolkit for individuals and NGOs and government to use in pressing for change on the issue of child labor. The [...]
“A tool kit for understanding the realities, responses and responsibilities of stakeholders” – A Film by Global March Against Child Labour
A report on alternatives to detention for immigrant families and unaccompanied minors by the Jesuit Refugee Service Europe. The report focuses on better approaches in Belgium, Germany and the UK.